Lymphomia is one of the most common terminal cancers in the US with nearly fifty thousand Americans newly diagnosed with lymphoma every year, within groups such as Hodgins disease, non-Hodgekins, Hotchkins or Burkitt’s limphoma.
Lymphomia is a type of cancer that starts in either the lymphocytes, or less commonly in the histiocytes. These are different cells in the reticuloendotelial system that moves through the lympatic system. Because there are many different types of lymphocytes, there are also a corresponding variety of types of lymphoma. The lymphomia’s belong to the hematological neoplasms.
What is lymphomia
With lymphoma, the cancer cells are based in the lymph nodes, bone marrow and all through the lymphatic system. Since the lymphatic system covers so many parts of the body, lymphomia can begin nearly anywhere in the body and it also spreads easily to most places if left untreated.
A very common way of grouping the lymphoma cancers are in two groups – the Hodgkin’s lymphomas and the non-Hodgekin’s lymphomas (which are all the others). The Hodgekin’s type has got its name from dr Thomas Hodgkin who discovered it in the early 1830?s.
A more modern gouping was made by the WHO in 2001, which was in turn based on the “Revised European-American Lymphoma” classification. The newer type of classification groups the condition depending on cell type. There are a few broad groups in this classification:
The B-cell tumors
The T-cell tumors and natural killer cell tumors
The Hodgkins lymphoma cancer
Other types such as Burkitts lymphoma canser
The typical symptom is a swelling in either of neck, groin, armpits or abdomen – this is where the external lymph nodes are located. In other cases it is possible that the tumor swelling up will start in other organs, it could be the skin or the stomach. As with other types of cancer, it is important to find it early for the best result in treatment.
Other symptoms include:
Weight loss, vomiting, nausea or abdominal pain
A general feeling of being bloated
Bone pain, itching, headaches or constant coughing
Body ache or fatigue
Nocturnal sweating or recurring or constant night fevers
Lymphoma cancer are often arranged in the groups of low, intermediate and high. This division is based on the actual type of lymphoma cells present and how they interact with chromosomes and lymph nodes. Some lymphomia types typically grow much faster than the rest and will therefore need special, more aggressive treatment. The division of lymphoma cancer into subclassec can be difficult depending on the vast amount of different sorts of lymphocyte cells involved.
The low-grade lymphoma’s
The low-grades will grow very slowly and allow a patient to live almost normally for many years, often as long as 5-10 years after the onset. After this slow initial period, the low-grade’s usually transform into faster progressing disorder and they become higher grade and the symptoms become more pronounced.
The Intermediate-grade lymphoma’s
This group will develop quite fast if not treated. With the help of treatment (chemotherapy or radiotherapy), it is possible to achieve remission stage for 2-3 patients out of 4. The treatment is often very successful and it is common to consider patients cured if they have been in remission for 3 years after the original diagnosis.
The high-grade lymphomia’s
If not treated, these lymphoma’s will progress very fast independent of stage. These require aggressive treatment and 2-3 patients out of 4 will reach remission. If still in remission after a year, it is likely that the cancer will never recur. The aggressive treatment of lymphoma cancer in this group is a combination of different types of aggressive chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Mantle cell lymphoma
Cutaneous T Cell lymphoma
Mycosis fungoides lymphoma
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma
Lymphoma diagnosis and treatment
In the effort to try and establish whether the patient has lymphoma or not, a doctor can use any of these options:
Examination of the family health history
A very close physical investigation using ultrasound, trying to find symptoms of lymph nodes or liver
Testing of the blood in order to establish kidmey and liver functions
With the help of a biopsy (needle through the skin, into the body in order to remove a very low level of tissue from one or several internal organs for further examination into the cancer and its aggressivity.
Lymphoma cancer markers
The cells called lymphocytes are the ones carried around in the lympatic system and these cells themselves can be used in the diagnose. The surface molecules of these cells are called cluster differentiation markers (CD). There is a lot of current research going into the classification of these at the moment as they can be used when diagnosing lymphomia cancer. Around 70-80 of these lymphoma markers have been found up to date. In any modern lymphomia diagnose, there is normally always at least a few of the lymphoma markers included. Hodgins disease, non-Hodgekins, Hotchkins and Burkitts limphoma.